Preschool PE Research Articles and Other Resources
The annotated references included in this section, for the most part, specifically relate to books and articles written about developmentally appropriate practices in physical education and movement programs for children ages 3 through 8.
Promoting Physical Activity Throughout the Curriculum by Eloise Elliott & Steve Sanders, PEC Editors
Andress, B. (1991). From research to practice: Preschool children and their movement responses to music. Young Children, 47(1), 22-27.
This article provides a review of research conducted on preschool children's movement responses to music, and highlights the characteristics of young children while engaged in music-movement activities, the role of the teacher, and the design of developmentally appropriate learning centers for the purpose of enhancing children. s movement responses to music.
Avery, M. (1994). Preschool physical education: A practical approach. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 65(6), 37-39.
This paper discusses the need for physical education specialists to offer consulting services and provide training workshops for preschool teachers on how to conduct developmentally appropriate activity programs that help children master basic motor skills.
Barrett, Kate R. (1992). What does it mean to have a developmentally appropriate physical education program? Physical Educator, 49(3) 114-118.
Addresses three issues regarding developmentally appropriate physical education: what it means; what teachers must know (change occurs in an orderly, sequential fashion and is age and experience related); and how teachers can implement it (be skilled observers of movement and be clear about the purpose of the task).
Bate, E. C. (1996). Build games progressively. Strategies, 9(6), 10-13.
Physical educators should build games progressively using the "Children Moving" approach, which satisfies all principles of developmental physical education using invariant, dynamic, teacher-designed, modified predesigned, and predesigned games.
Block, M. E., & Davis, T. D. (1996). An activity-based approach to physical education for preschool children with disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 13(3), 230-246.
This article describes a new developmentally appropriate model for educating young children. The concept of an activity-based intervention model is introduced and examples provided of how the model can be implemented within motor development/physical education contexts for preschool children with disabilities.
Booth, B. F., & Larock, R. (1986). Movement autonomy and the human environment. Three to six year old children. Physical Education Review, 8, 82-85.
The authors discuss the movement environment and propose a set of principles which evolved from their movement research with young children. Suggestions for optimum groupings, instructional behavior, parental involvement, play and safety considerations, participation, and self-discipline are offered.
Brown, B., & Prideaux, R. (1998). Children with movement learning difficulties. A collaborative initiative with 4-5 year-old mainstreamed children and their parents. British Journal of Physical Education, 19, 186-189.
This article describes the results and design of a collaborative approach (i.e., teachers, parents, support staff) for diagnosing, assessing, intervening, monitoring, and re-evaluating 4- and five-year-old children. s movement skill. A justification for a . physical curriculum. within the overall preschool curriculum is provided and described using a developmental model. The link between early movement learning and movement experiences with children. s motor development and their successful integration in playground, classroom and movement settings is established.
Brown, J., Shrill, C., & Gench, B. (1981). Effects of an integrated physical education/music program in changing early childhood perceptual-motor performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53, 151-154.
This research study pioneered the investigation of the effects of an integrated physical education/music program in changing early childhood perceptual-motor performance of preschool children. Based on this study, music or rhythmical accompaniment may enhance the acquisition of fundamental motor skills.
Campbell, L. (1997). Perceptual-motor programs, movement and young children's needs: Some challenges for teachers. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 22(1), 37-42.
Examines the use of perceptual-motor programs as physical education in early childhood programs. Contends that low rates of physical activity without variety, little skill instruction, teacher-centered instruction, limited opportunities to develop social skills, and a multiple station format are counterproductive to motor skill development and physical activity enjoyment. Presents guidelines to assist teachers in recognizing appropriate physical education practices.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (1997). Guidelines for school and community programs to promote lifelong physical activity among young people. Journal of School Health, 67(6), 202-219.
The guidelines include recommendations about 10 aspects of school and community programs to promote lifelong physical activity among young people. One aspect discussed is developmentally appropriate community sports and recreation programs that are attractive to young people.
Conkell, C. S., & Pearson, H. (1995). Do you use developmentally appropriate games? Strategies, 9(1), 22-25.
This article provides rules or guidelines to follow when evaluating a physical education program for developmental appropriateness.
Gabbard, C. (1995). P. E. for preschoolers: The right way. Principal, 74(5), 21-22, 24.
This article, written to provide information to principals and administrators about developmentally appropriate practices, contrasts some appropriate and inappropriate practices for early childhood programs.
Graham, G. (Editor). (1992). Developmentally appropriate physical education for children. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63(6), 29-60.
Nine articles in this feature
discuss persistent physical education practices that are not in the best
interest of children, suggesting developmentally appropriate alternatives. Some
topics discussed are sequence of instruction in games, developmentally
appropriate dance and gymnastics, social-emotional components, and activities
with questionable value.
Bredekamp, S. (1992). What is developmentally appropriate. and why is it important? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63(6), 31-32.
Grineski, S. (1992). What is truly a developmentally appropriate physical education program for children? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63(6), 33-35, 60.
Petersen, S. C. (1992). The sequence of instruction in games: Implications for developmental appropriateness. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63(6), 36- 39.
Werner, P., Sweeting, T., Woods, A., & Jones, L. (1992). Developmentally appropriate dance for children. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63(6), 40-43,53.
Rikard, G. L. (1992). Developmentally appropriate gymnastics for children. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63(6), 44-46.
Allsbrook, L. (1992). Fitness should fit children. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63(6), 47-49.
Weiller, K. H. (1992). The social-emotional component of physical education for children. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63(6), 50-53.
Schwager, S. (1992). Relay races--Are they appropriate for elementary physical education? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63(6), 54-56.
Williams, N. F. (1992). The physical education hall of shame. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63(6), 57-60.
Helion, J. G., & Fry, F. (1995). Modifying activities for developmental appropriateness. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 66(7), 57-59.
Physical educator's need to modify activities in ways that will increase each student's chance of successful participation. Examples of how to modify activities to make them more appropriate are provided.
Helm, Harris, J., & Boos, S. (1996). Increasing the physical educator's impact: Consulting, collaborating, and teacher training in early childhood programs. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 67(3), 26-32.
This article focuses on an early childhood education center that recognized a need for a structured movement curriculum and invited physical educators to act as consultants. Interactive workshops for teachers provided training in movement principles and skills, and information on lesson planning, evaluation, and developmentally appropriate equipment.
Holt/Hale, S. A. (1992). There is a
school in Tennessee...A success story of developmentally appropriate PE. Teaching
Elementary Physical Education, September, 8-9.
This short informative article highlights a elementary developmentally appropriate physical education program which was selected as a national demonstration center for physical education. It discusses moving the focus away from competitive games and emphasizing a curricular base of skill themes where students strive for mastery of basic movement skills.
Johnson, M. (1997). Can marching be developmentally appropriate? Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 8(6), 25-26.
This article attempts to make the case for use of marching in a developmentally appropriate movement program for children suggesting that this locomotor skill provides movement and conceptual knowledge activities that can be considered appropriate objectives for children.
Kelman, A. (1990). Choices for children. Young Children, 45(3), 42-45.
This article addresses the importance of providing choices (e.g., outdoor or indoor play; classroom activities) for children within the learning environment. Direct applications can be made to the movement environment.
Mielke, D. (1991). Physical education in the preschool: A new professional commitment. Indiana Journal for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 20, 27-29.
Mielke justifies preschool physical education and the need for training competent professionals in this area. He highlights key factors to helping children acquire proficient movement skills and provides a list of movement competencies for children ages 3 to 6. A list of developmentally appropriate movement activities is also included.
Mitchell, S. A., Griffin, L. L., & Olsin, J. L. (1994). Tactical awareness as a developmentally appropriate focus for the teaching of games in elementary and secondary physical education.Physical Educator, 51(1), 21-28.
This paper describes how tactical awareness is a developmentally appropriate practice for the teaching of games. How to identify, teach, and assess for tactical awareness in games is also discussed.
Morford, L. (Editor). (1997). Developmentally appropriate physical education. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 8(2), 3-11, 25-31.
This feature provides four articles which provide examples of how to apply developmentally appropriate national guidelines to elementary physical education programs. The feature provides a program evaluation checklist to assist teachers in determining the developmentally appropriateness of their physical education programs and takes an objective common sense approach to implementing developmentally appropriate standards. Articles include:
Werner, P. (1997). The national standards and common sense: Using them together to determine what is developmentally appropriate. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 8(2), 6- 8.
Chadwick, V. (1997). Making sense out of standards. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 8(2), 10-11, 31.
Avery, M. (1997). Origins of developmentally appropriate. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 8(2), 25.
Stillwell, J. (1997). Developmentally appropriate curriculum development. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 8(2), 26.
Myhre, S. 1991. Caregivers corner. With prop boxes we're always ready for creative movement. Young Children, 46(2), 29.
Provides ideas for developmentally appropriate creative movement through the use of props.
Olds, A. R., Kranowitz, C. S., Porter, R., & Carter, M. (1994). Building in opportunities for gross motor development. Child Care Information Exchange (96), 31-50.
Describes children's needs to move indoors and outdoors and instructs teachers on how to adapt experiences for children's differing abilities. Focuses on children from infancy through five years of age.
Pica, R. (1997). Beyond physical development: Why young children need to move. Young Children, 52(6), 4-11.
Explores how movement promotes development in the following areas: social/emotional, creative, and cognitive. Movement promotes development in areas of the mind as well as the body.
Poest, C. A., Williams, J. R., Witt, D. D., & Atwood, M. E. (1990). Challenge me to move: Large muscle development in young children. Young Children, 45(5), 4-10.
A well defined program for large muscle development (or motor development). The article addresses three major categories: fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, and perceptual motor development. Based on research findings, the authors emphasize that children's free play versus guided movement experiences and planned motor activity centers result is more dramatic and social play than motoric play. A case is made for providing young children with carefully planned movement experiences which will enhance fundamental movement skills.
Rodger, L. (1996). Adding movement throughout the day. Young Children, 51(3), 4-6
Explains how movement can be added to the classroom throughout the day and how it can enhance learning.
Sanders, S., & Yongue, B. (1998). Challenging movement experiences for young children. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 26(1), 9-18.
This article provides a review of developmentally appropriate practices related to child development, teaching strategies, curriculum and assessment in early childhood movement programs. The authors provide background information for teachers in selecting appropriate teaching strategies, curriculum and assessment tools.
Sanders, S. (1994). Preschool physical education: Challenges for the profession. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 65(6), 25-56.
Eight articles in this feature
discuss developmentally appropriate practices in movement programs for young
children. Some topics discussed are
skill themes and movement concepts as a curricular foundation, playgrounds,
class organization, integrated learning, and providing movement experiences for
preschool children with disabilities.
Also is included an article on the role of teacher preparation in
providing developmentally appropriate movement experiences for young children. Articles include:
Ignico, A. (1994). Early childhood physical education: Providing the foundation. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 65(6), 28-30.
Sawyers, J. K. (1994). The preschool playground: Developing skills through outdoor play. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 65(6), 31-33.
Satchwell, L. (1994). Preschool physical education class structure. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 65(6), 34-36.
Avery, M. (1994). Preschool physical education: A practical approach. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 65(6), 37-39.
Werner, P. (1994). Whole physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 65(6), 40-44.
Block, M. E. (1994). Including preschool children with disabilities. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 65(6), 45-49.
Carson, L. M. Preschool physical education: Expanding the role of teacher preparation. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 65(6), 50-52.
Cleland, F. (1994). Preschool annotated bibliography. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 65(6), 53-56.
Sanders, S. (1994). Using student go--home journals for assessment. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 5(3), 8-9.
Article discusses one way of establishing a program of developmentally appropriate assessment, through the use of an assessment portfolio, which contains a student go-home journal as a tool to record what students are learning on a weekly basic. Article emphasizes parent involvement is the assessment process.
Sanders, S. (1993). Developing appropriate movement practices for 3- to 5- year olds. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 4(5), 1,7,11,16.
This article was written after the 1992 developmentally appropriate physical education practices document was published and makes a case that this document does not go far enough in outlining appropriate practice for preschool children. The article presents some examples of components for an early childhood document with the intent of soliciting national debate and discussion during the time the . Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Movement Programs for Young Children Ages 3-5" was being developed.
Sherrill, C., & Gench, B. (1981). Effects of an integrated physical education/music program in changing early childhood perceptual-motor performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53, 151-154.
This research study pioneered the investigation of the effects of an integrated physical education/music program of instruction on the perceptual-motor performance of preschool children. Based on this study, music and rhythmical accompaniment may enhance the acquisition of fundamental motor skills.
Spinew, K. J., Norman, K. A., & Baldwin, C. K. (1997). Early adolescents and their leisure time: Implications for leisure service agencies. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 15(2), 61-83.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges and opportunities leisure service agencies face in providing programs and services that are both desirable and developmentally appropriate for early adolescents ages 10-14.
Stork, S., & Sanders, S. (1996). Developmentally appropriate physical education: A rating scale. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 67(6), 52-58.
The Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education (DAPE) rating scale was created to evaluate the efficiency of DAPE programs based on 24 PE parameters. The results of the DAPE rating scale can be used as a basis for developing or modifying DAPE programs to better assist children in the development of physical skills.
Sutcliffe, M., Billett, & Duncan, J. (1987). Learning to move and moving to learn. British Journal of Physical Education, 18(1), 157-159.
The authors provide an excellent summary of Piagetian concepts and the relationship between physical and cognitive development beyond infancy. The teachers role in facilitating nursery school children. s motor development is described. A curriculum based on developmental skill themes and movement concepts is recommended to enable children to acquire, redefine, and extend fundamental movement skills needed to participate in formal games and sports. The article provides ample information to justify early childhood movement education as a viable part of the overall educational curriculum.
Thompson, D. S. (1993). The promotion of gross and fine motor development for infants and toddlers: Developmentally appropriate activities for parents and teachers. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 361 104).
In recognition of the close relationship between motor skill and cognitive development in the first 2 years of life, this guide presents 78 developmentally appropriate activities that parents and teachers can use to enhance infant and toddler motor development.
Torbert, M. (1993). Developmentally appropriate- developmentally relevant. Journal of Physical Education Recreation and Dance, 64(7), 5.
Physical education in schools must be more pertinent than merely suitable. The physical education provided presently must be reviewed and the goals altered to ensure that the education the child receives is essential. An examination of physical education as developmentally relevant is discussed.
Werner, P., Timms, S., & Almond, L. (1996). Health stops: Practical ideas for health-related exercise in preschool and primary classrooms. Young Children, 51(6), 48-55.
Argues that educators of young children need to prioritize exercise in their students. lives to enhance physical and psychological health. Guides teachers in creating developmentally appropriate exercise, creative movement activities, movement and make believe activities.
Wessel, Janet A., & Holland, Bernard V. (1992). The Right Stuff: Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education for Early Childhood. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 348 784).
This paper focuses on physical education for students in preschool (3 to 5 years) and primary grades K-2 (5 to 7 years). It describes developmentally appropriate practices as a set of indicators for high quality play and motor skills programs for all children, including children with special needs. The paper also describes and recommends an outcome driven decision making model to integrate the identified quality program indicators for making instructional and curricular decisions to serve all children.
Wikgren, S. (1991). Developmentally appropriate PE: A move toward consistent quality. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 2(4), 1,4.
One of the physical education professions first articles published on developmentally appropriate practices. Discusses the development by the Council on Physical Education for Children of the developmentally appropriate physical education practices document published in 1992.
Williams, N. F. (1996). Inappropriate teaching practices: The physical education hall of shame part 3. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 67(8), 45-48.
Poor teaching practices among physical educators are often due to a lack of critical thinking. Through critical thinking, physical educators can implement developmentally appropriate physical education that fosters recreation as well as learning. Some suggestions on how to eliminate poor teaching practices are presented.
Wood, R. (1985). Factors influencing adolescent motivation: Implications for physical education and sport. Physical Educator, 43(3), 109-114.
The author reviews four main influences on an adolescent's motivation for learning. A flexible curriculum that emphasizes student needs in conjunction with developmentally appropriate activities is identified as a requirement of an effective physical education program.
Yongue, B., & Kelly, K. (1997) Developmentally appropriate use of equipment. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 8(5), 13.
This short article provides a few examples of the types of equipment that should be provided children in a developmentally appropriate movement program.
Altman, R. (1992). Movement in early childhood. In A. Mitchell & J. David (Eds.), Explorations with young children (pp. 29-240). Beltsville, MD: Gryphon House.
Connects movement to children's learning. Movement activities in the form of practical skills, games, creative movement and framed by themes are presented for the 2-8 year old setting.
Buschner, A. (1990). Developmentally appropriate movement activities for young children. In W.S. Stinson (Ed.), Moving and learning for the young child (pp. 117-125). Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance.
This paper focuses on movement programs for children ages 3-6 years. Teaching methods for these young children were discussed as well as developmentally appropriate apparatus and small equipment.
Gallahue, D. A. (1995). Transforming physical education curriculum. In S. Bredekamp & T. Rosegrant (Eds.), Reaching potentials: Transforming early childhood curriculum and assessment volume 2 (pp. 125-144). Washington DC: NAEYC.
Introduces the concept of developmental physical education and offers suggestions on how to incorporate it in the early childhood curriculum. Discusses the categories of movement, how movement skills are learned, how to plan movement skill themes and program strands, and how to assess progress.
Ignico, A. (1996). Early childhood physical education: Providing the foundation. In Annual Editions: Early Childhood Education (17th ed., pp. 205-207). Guilford, CT: Dushkin Publishing Group/Brown and Benchmark Publishers.
Discusses the ways that developmentally appropriate motor skill instruction and the introduction of movement concepts in preschool build a foundation for successful participation in later childhood and adult physical activities.
Payne, G., & J. E. Rink. (1997). Physical education in the
developmentally appropriate integrated curriculum. In C.H. Hart, D.C. Burts, & R.
Charlesworth (Eds.), Integrated curriculum and developmentally appropriate
practice: Birth through age eight (pp. 145-170). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
This chapter explains what is meant by developmentally appropriate practice and specifically concerning physical education. Also, how to integrate physical education with other subject matter discipline is discussed.
Rogers, C. S. (1990). The importance of play. In W.S. Stinson (Ed.), Moving and
learning for the young child (pp.
43-50). Reston, VA: American
Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance.
Contributions of play to the development of the whole child are discussed. A review of the research literature describes the links between play and problem solving, language and social development, as well as emotional functioning. The role of play in social evolution is explained.
Block, M. (1994). A teacher. s guide to including students with disabilities in regular physical education. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
Two chapters in this practical book are particularly helpful for preschool teachers: one provides ways to adapt activities for specific disabilities, the other discusses how to draw young children with disabilities into active developmentally appropriate physical participation.
Barlin, A. L. (1979). Teaching your wings to fly: The nonspecialists guide to movement activities for young children. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear Publishing Co.
Presents a program of dance movement activities for teachers of three to twelve year olds with a large selection of music and instruments. Specific techniques communicate how to introduce the activities and support children's natural instincts and imagination.
Chenfeld, M. B. (1993). Teaching in the key of life. Washington, DC: NAEYC.
Provides examples of the author's own experiences in the classroom and how she uses creative movement to create an engaging learning environment. She describes many hands-on experiences to emphasize the value of tuning in to what children like.
Clements, R. L., & Schiemer, S. (1993). Let's move, let's play! Portland, OR: KinderCare Learning Centers, Inc.
Produced with the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, this book contains developmentally appropriate movement and classroom activities for preschool children.
Cone, T. P., Werner, P., Cone, S., & Woods, M. M. (1998). Interdisciplinary teaching through physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
This book discusses the fundamentals of interdisciplinary programs which attempt to integrate developmentally appropriate movement and physical activity with other areas of the curriculum. Teaching strategies are presented along with learning experiences in language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, music, theater arts and visual arts. A comprehensive lesson plan book for both physical education and classroom teachers.
Flinchum, B. M. (1975). Motor development in early childhood: A guide for movement education with ages 2 to 6. St Louis, MO: The C.V. Mosby Company.
A preschool teacher describes basic motor development and understanding in the psychomotor domain. In addition, movement and dance activities, teaching techniques, and suggestions for organizing the environment for movement and constructing equipment is presented.
Gallahue, D. A. (1996). Developmental physical education for today's children (3rd ed.). Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark.
This book was written for university students in physical education, early childhood education, and elementary education, and especially designed for those taking a first course in children's physical education. It provides a framework to approach teaching of movement activities to children based on a developmental perspective.
Gerhardt, L. A. (1973). Moving and knowing: The young child orients himself in space. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
In addition to developing a conceptual framework built on analysis and synthesis of movement and conceptualization, the book links this framework to teaching and learning through analyses of selected classroom observations of children. s seeming development of spatial ideas through their body movement. Describes ways of designing a curriculum that will facilitate the child's conceptualization of space through body movement.
Gilliom, B. C. (1970). Basic movement education for children: Rationale and teaching units. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Movement education is an individualized approach to teaching physical activity in preschool to elementary school settings. The content of basic movement is discussed, physical, social and cognitive movement objectives and a wide range of teaching strategies and movement education activities are covered.
Graham, G., Holt/Hale, S. A., & Parker, M. (1998). Children moving: A reflective approach to teaching physical education. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Children Moving is a comprehensive textbook for teachers wanting to implement a quality elementary physical education program. The book describes the skill theme approach to teaching physical education and includes information on child development, appropriate instruction, curriculum, and assessment of elementary children in the movement setting.
Grant, J. M. (1995). Shake, rattle, and learn: Classroom-tested ideas that use movement for active learning. York, ME: Stenhouse.
Movement based learning activities for pre-K through 6th grade are tied to 9 content areas: practicing communication; experiencing stories and poetry; interpreting the environment, human relationships and societal issues; working with visual design and spatial relationships; and investigating rhythm.
Hammett, C. T. (1992). Movement activities for early childhood. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
This book provides over 100 pages of developmentally appropriate movement activities all based on the use of skill themes. Learning tasks are divided into locomotor, ball handling, gymnastics, and rhythmic activities. Lesson plans provide information about the objective, vocabulary, equipment, safety and organizational procedures in presenting activities to children.
National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (1995). Moving into the future: National standards for physical education. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
This book provides outcomes and benchmarks for students in physical education programs. Developed on the national level through extensive committee work, the benchmarks provide the guidelines for teachers to implement the standards into their movement programs. A must have publication for those who are developing early childhood physical activity curriculums.
Pica, R. (1999). Moving and learning across the curriculum: 315 activities and games to make learning fun. New York: Delmar.
Includes activities designed to make movement part of the early childhood curriculum by integrating movement with art, language arts, mathematics, music, science, and social studies.
Pica, R. (1998). Experiences in movement with music, activities, and theory. New York: Delmar.
Provides information for individuals who would like to understand and utilize the movement curriculum in early childhood education. Includes information on the benefits of movement, lesson planning, creating and maintaining a positive learning environment, and bringing movement education outdoors.
Pica, R. (1990). Preschoolers moving & learning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
This book includes written movement lessons and accompanying audio-cassettes designed for use with 3- to 5-year-old children. These lessons highlight the development of locomotor skills, nonlocomotor skills, movement concepts, and the use of imagery within a rhythmical movement experience.
Pugmire-Stoy, M. C. (1991). Spontaneous play in early childhood. Albany, NY: Delmar.
This book emphasizes the establishment of environments in which children can express themselves through movement. The primary focus is that children should be encouraged to explore and solve problems while the teacher nurtures this process.
Sanders, S. W. (1992). Designing preschool movement programs. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
This book was designed to assist teachers to develop and direct a developmentally appropriate movement program for children ages 3 through 5. The book outlines the importance of movement in educating young children and tells how early exposure to structured movement activities benefits children throughout their lives. Over 100 developmentally appropriate activities are included and organized by skill themes. Eight weeks of example lesson plans are included and the book is presented to enable teachers to design and plan their own developmentally appropriate lessons.
Stinson, W. J. (Ed.). (1990). Moving and learning for the young child. Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance.
This book contains presentations from "Forging the Linkage Between Moving and Learning for Preschool Children" (a 1988 Early Childhood Conference held in Washington, D. C.).
Selections from presentations highlight the integration of children's affective, motor, and cognitive development through movement experiences focused on the process of learning to move and moving to learn.
Stinson, W. J., Mehrof, H. H., & Thies, S. (1993). Quality daily thematic lesson plans for classroom teachers: Movement activities for pre-k and kindergarten . Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.
The authors present ideas for the development of themes in the classroom and movement setting. Collaborative themes created by the classroom teacher and movement specialist include examples such as My Body and The Seasons.
Torbert, M., & Schneider, L. B. (1993). Follow me too. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Includes research background for using movement games in early childhood settings, a perceptual motor chart indicating the skills involved in suggested activities, suggestions for parent involvement, and directions for making inexpensive equipment.
Virgilio, S. J. (1997). Fitness
education for children: A team approach.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
A new perspective in elementary physical education: how physical activity affects health and mortality, healthy people 2000, Surgeon General. s report, components of health-related physical fitness, and sport-related physical fitness. Provides ideas for planning developmentally appropriate activities.
Wortham, S., & Frost, J. (Eds.). (1990). Playgrounds for young children: National survey and perspectives. Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance.
Reports on ideal play environments for young children are highlighted.
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE). (2002). Active Start - A Statement of Physical Activity Guidelines for Children Birth to Five Years (2002). Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance.
Council on Physical Education for Children (COPEC). (1992).
Developmentally appropriate physical education practices for children: A position statement of the Council on
Physical Education for Children. Reston, VA: National Association for Sport
and Physical Education.
Defines quality physical education in elementary schools in terms of developmentally and instructionally appropriate practices. The statement contains three premises that should be understood by teachers in implementing a developmentally appropriate physical education program and highlights 26 components describing both appropriate and inappropriate practice.
Council on Physical Education for Children (COPEC). (1994).
Developmentally appropriate practice in movement programs for young children
ages 3-5: A position statement of
the Council on Physical Education for Children. Reston, VA: National
Association for Sport and Physical Education.
Defines quality physical education in terms of developmentally and
instructionally appropriate practices which recognize children's changing
capacities to move, accommodate a variety of individual characteristics and
maximize opportunities for learning and success by all children.
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE). (1995).
Looking at physical education from a developmental perspective: A guide for
teaching. A position statement
of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. developed by the Motor Development Task
Force. Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation
This booklet defines, outlines, and includes frequently asked questions concerning the developmental perspective. A discussion of how teachers can plan programs and lessons that reflect the developmental perspective in the reality of day-to-day situations is presented.
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE). (1998).
Physical activity for children: A statement of guidelines. A position
statement of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education developed
by the Council on Physical Education for Children. Reston, VA: American Alliance
for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance.
This report summarizes extensive evidence, including information from the Surgeon General's Report, on the health benefits of regular physical activity. The document provides meaningful physical activity guidelines for physical education teachers, youth physical activity leaders, administrators, parents, physicians, and all others dedicated to promoting physically active lifestyles among children. This is a must have document for every early childhood educator and must be shared with parents in order to help establish developmentally appropriate physical activity patterns in children.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). (1996).
Physical activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta,
GA: USDHHS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for
Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
This report concludes that people of all ages, both male and female, who are physically active stand to gain many health benefits. The document supports the need for physical activity programs for children but suggests that programs should be carefully designed and implemented.