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Univ of Montana-Western
Dillon, MT

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PE Central exists to assist teachers and other adults in helping children become physically active and healthy for a lifetime.

Welcome to the Research In Action section of PE Central. In this section, we share practical and innovative research findings in a user friendly manner. Please note that in almost all instances to gain access to these articles you will have to go to the library or get the original journal from the publisher. Our PE Journals page should be helpful for that task.


Andrews, R., Charlesworth, A., Evans, A., & Cowley, A. (1997). A double blind, cross-over comparison of the effects of a loop diuretic and a dopamine receptor agonist as first line therapy in patients with mild congestive heart failure. European Heart Journal, 18 (5), 852-857.

Aono, Y., Oichi, A., & Tadokoro, Y. (1997). Walking navigation system for the visually impaired using a guide stick. Electrical Engineering in Japan, 119, 69-80.

Asato, L., Wang, M., Chan, Y., Yeh, S., Chung, H., Chung, S., Chida, S., Uezato, T., Suzuki, I., Yamagata, N., Kokubu, T., & Yamamoto, S. (1996). Effect of egg white on serum cholesterol concentration in young women. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 42 (2), 87-96.

Baranowski, T., & de Moor, C. (2000). How many days was that? Intra-individual variability and physical activity assessment.  Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71 (2), 74-78.

Barchfeld, T., Schonhofer, B., Jones, P., & Kohler, D. (1999). Evaluation of daily activity in patients with COPD. Medizinische Klinik (foreign language), 94 (1), 93-95.

Bassett Jr., D., Ainsworth, B., Leggett, S., Mathien, C., Main, J., Hunter, D., & Duncan, G. (1996). Accuracy of five electronic pedometers for measuring distance walked. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1071-1077.

Bassett, D., Fr., Cureton, A., & Ainsworth, B. (2000b). Measurement of daily walking distance-questionnaire versus pedometer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32 (5), 1018-1023.

Bassett, D., Jr. (2000). Validity and reliability issues in objective monitoring of physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71 (2), 30-36.

Bassett, D., Jr., Ainsworth, B., Swartz, A., Strath, S., O’Brien, W., & King, G. (2000a). Validity of four motion sensors in measuring moderate intensity physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, S471-S480.

Bassey, E., Bendall, M., & Pearson, M. (1988). Muscle strength in the triceps surae and objectively measured customary walking activity in men and women over 65 years of age. Clinical Science, 74 (1), 85-89.

Bassey, E., Dallosso, H., Fentem, P., Irving, J., & Patrick, J. (1987). Validation of a simple mechanical accelerometer (pedometer) for the estimation of walking acitivity. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 56 (3), 323-330.

Bassey., E., Patrick., J., Irving., J., Blecher., A., Fentem., P. (1983). An unsupervised "aerobics" physical training program in middle-aged factory workers: feasibility, validation and response. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 52 (1), 120-125.

Baveystock., C., Schonhofer, B., & Jones, P. (1999). Correlation between daily pedometer counts, exercise performance dyspnea and health status in COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 159, A762W.

Belcher, G., Radomisli, T., Abate, J., Stabile, L., & Trafton, P. (1997). Functional outcome analysis of operatively treated malleolar fractures. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 11 (2), 106-109.

Bermon, S., Hebuterne, X., Peroux, J., Marconnet, P., & Rampal, P. (1997). Correction of protein-energy malnutrition in older adults: effects of a short-term aerobic training program. Clinical Nutrition, 16 (6), 291-298.

Blair, S. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, S. M. Weiss, J. A. Herd & e. al. (Eds.) Behavioral Health: A Handbook of Health Enhancement and Disease Prevention, New York, NY: Wiley, 424-447.

Bouten, C., Verboeket-Van de Venne, W., Westerterp, K., Verduin, M., & Janssen, J. (1996). Daily physical activity assessment: comparison between movement registration and doubly labeled water. Journal of Applied Physiology, 81, 1019-1026.

Bouten, C., Westerterp, K., Verduin, M., & Janssen, J. (1994). Assessment of energy expenditure for physical activity using a triaxial accelerometer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 1516-1523.

Cauley, J., Laporte, R., Black Sandler, R., Schramm, M., & Kriska, A. (1987). Comparison of methods to measure physical activity in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 45, 14-22.

Cohen-Mansfield, J., Werner, P., Culpepper, W., Wolfson, M., Bickel, E. (1997). Assessment of ambulatory behavior in nursing home residents who pace or wander: a comparison of four commercially available devices. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 8 (6), 359-365.

Coleman, K., Smith, D., Boone, D., Joseph, A., & del Aguila, M. (1999). Step activity monitor: long-term, continuous recording of ambulatory function. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 36, 8-18.

Cooke, C. (1996). Maximal oxygen uptake, economy and efficiency. In R. G. Eston & T. Reilly (Eds.) Kinanthropometry and Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual: Tests, Procedures and Data, London: E&FN Spon, 197-220.

Cowley, A., Fullwood, L., Muller, A., Stainer, K., Skene, A., & Hampton, J. (1991b). Exercise capability in heart failure: is cardiac output important after all? Lancet, 337, 771.

Cowley, A., Fullwood, L., Stainer, K., & Hampton, J. (1991a). Exercise tolerance in patients with heart failure: how should it be measured? European Heart Journal, 12 (1), 50-54.

Davies, J., Malone, P., Harland, S., & Shearer, R. (1989). The pedometer – an objective assessment of quality of life. British Journal of Cancer, 60, 489.

Dunn, A., Kampert, B., Garcia, M., Kohl, H., & Blair, S. (1999). Comparison of lifestyle and structured interventions to increase physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Journal of the American Medical Association, 327-334.

Dunne, P., Sanders, M., Rowell, J., & McWhirter, W. (1991). An evaluation of cognitive-behavioural techniques in the management of chronic arthritic pain in men with haemophilia. Behaviour Change, 8 (2), 70-78.

Durnin, J. (1990). Assessment of physical activity during leisure and work. In C. Bouchard, R. J. Shepard, & T. Stephens (Eds.) Exercise, Fitness and Health: A Consensus of Current Knowledge, Champaign IL: Kinetics Books, 63-70.

Edelman, B., & Smits, G. (1984). The pedometer: a reassessment of its usefulness in the measurement of activity level. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 58, 151-158.

Eston, R., Rowlands, A., & Ingledew, D. (1998). Validity of heart rate, pedometry, and accelerometry for predicting the energy cost of children's activities. Journal of Applied Physiology, 84, 362-371.

Feller, J., Kay, P., Hodgkinson, J., & Wroblewski, B. (1994). Activity and socket wear in the Charnley low-friction arthroplasty. Journal of Arthroplasty, 9 (4), 341-345.

Fogelholm, M., Hiilloskorpi, H., Laukkanen, R., Oja, P., Van Marken Lichtenbelt, W., & Westerterp, K. (1998). Assessment of energy expenditure in overweight women Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30 (8), 1191-1197.

Fogelholm, M., Kukkonen-Harjula, K., & Oja, P. (1999). Eating control and physical activity as determinants of short-term weight maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet among obese women. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23 (2), 203-210.

Fogelholm, M., Kukkonen-Harjula, K., Nenonen, a., & Pasanen, M. (2000). Effects of walking training on weight maintenance after a very low energy diet in pre-menopausal obese women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 2177-2184.

Freedson, P. (1991). Electronic motion sensors and heart-rate as measures of physical activity in children. Journal of School Health, 61, 220-223.

Freedson, P. (1981). Field monitoring of physical activity in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 1, 8-18.

Freedson, P., & Miller, K. (2000). Objective monitoring of physical activity using motion sensors and heart rate. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71 (2), S21-S29.

Frey, J., Rochat, T., Pichard, C., Dousse, N., Janssens, J. & Tschopp, J. (1998). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing home oxygen therapy: a study of clinical parameters, nutritional status and ambulatory capacity. Revue des Maladies Respiratoires (foreign language), 15 (1), 69-78.

Fry, A., & Martin, M. (1996). Cognitive idiosyncrasies among children with the chronic fatigue syndrome: anomalies in self-reported activity levels. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41, 213-223.

Fujimori, K., Satoh, M., Suzuki, E., & Arakawa, M. (1993). Assessment of exercise performance by a pedometer in patients with chronic respiratory failure. Kokyu To Jukan (foreign language), 41 (4), 343-347.

Gardner, A., & Poehlman, E. (1998). Assessment of free-living daily physical activity in older claudicants: validation against the doubly labeled water technique. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 53 (4), M275-276.

Gardner, A., Montgomery, P., Womack, C., & Killewich, L. (1999). Smoking history is related to free-living daily physical activity in claudicants. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31 (7), 980-986.

Gardner, A., Sieminski, D., & Killewich, L. (1997). The effect of cigarette smoking on free-living daily physical activity in older claudication patients. The Journal of Vascular Diseases, 48 (11), 947-955.

Gayle, E., Montoye, H., & Philpot, J. (1977). Accuracy of pedometers for measuring distance walked. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 48 (3), 632-636.

Goetsch, V., Abel, J., & Pope, M. (1994). The effects of stress, mood, and coping on blood glucose in NIDDM: a prospective pilot evaluation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32 (5), 503-510.

Goldfield, G., Kalakanis, L., Ernst, L., & Epstein, L. (2000). Open-loop feedback to increase physical activity in obese children. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 24, 888-892.

Goldsmith, A., Dowson, D., Wrobleski, B., Siney, P., Fleming, P., & Lane, J. (2001). The effect of activity levels of total hip arthroplasty patients on socket penetration. J. Arthroplasty, 16 (5), 620-627.

Goldsmith, A., Dowson, D., Wroblewski, B., Siney, P., Fleming, P., Lane, J., Stone, M., & Walker, R. (2001). Comparative study of the activity of total hip arthroplasty patients and normal subjects. J. Arthroplasty, 16 (5), 613-619.

Graser, Susan V., Pangrazi, Robert P. & Vincent, William J. (2009). Step It Up: Activity Intensity Using Pedometers. Journal of Physical Education Recreation and Dance, 80 (1), 22-24.

Gretebeck, R., & Montoye, H. (1992). Variability of some objective measures of physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24, 1167-1172.

Groves, D. (1988). Beyond the pedometer: new tools for monitoring activity. The Physician and Sports Medicine, 16 (6), 160-164.

Hachisuka, K., Tsutsui, Y., Furusawa, K., & Ogata, J. (1998). Gender differences in disability and lifestyle among community-dwelling elderly stroke patients in Kitakyushu, Japan. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79, 998-1002.

Hagiware, A., Hayashi, Y., Nakamura, Y., & Muraoka, I. (2000). Effects of group versus home-based walking intervention on lifestyle activity. Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, 49, 571-579.

Haskell, W., Leon, A., Casperson, C., Froelicher, V., Hagberg, J., Harlan, W., Holloszy, J., Regensteiner, J., Thompson, P., Washburn, R., & Wilson, P. (1992). Cardiovascular benefits and assessment of physical activity and physical fitness in adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24 (6 Suppl), 201S-220S.

Hatano, Y. (1993). Use of the pedometer for promoting daily walking exercise. Journal of the International Committee on Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 4-8.

Heiser, J., Epstein, L., & Wing, R. (1981). Mechanical reliability of pedometers. The Behavior Therapist, 4, 21-22.

Hendelman, D., Miller, K., Baggett, C., Debold, E., & Freedson, P. (2000). Validity of accelerometry for the assessment of moderate intensity physical activity in the field. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32 (9 Suppl), S442-S449.

Henderson, K., Ainsworth, B., Stolarzcyk, L., Hootman, J., & Levin, S. (1999). Notes on linking qualitative and quantitative data: the cross cultural physical activity participation study. Leisure Sciences, 21, 247-255.

Hoshikawa, T., Matsui, H., Izuhara, K., & Sano, S. (1987). A study on amount of daily physical activity of elementary school children determined by a pedometer. Taiiku no Kagaku [Journal of Health, Physical Education & Recreation] (foreign language), 15, 56-66.

Ichihara, Y., Hattori, R., Anno, T., Okuma, K., Yokoi, M., Mizuno, Y., Iwatsuka, T., Ohta, T., & Kawamura, T. (1996). Oxygen uptake and its relation to physical activity and other coronary risk factors in asymptomatic middle-aged Japanese. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 16 (6), 378-385.

Ino-Oka, E., Sagawa, K., Takashahi, T., Inooka, H., Kutsuwa, Y., & Umeda, S. (2000). Efficacy on anti-anginal drugs in the treatment of angia pectoris associated with silent myocardial ischemia: importance of quantitative holter ECG data for patient activity. Internal Medicine, 39, 1027-1037.

Ino-Oka, E., Takahashi, T., Sagawa, K., & Inooka, H. (1996). Diagnosis of silent myocardial ischemia using ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring with pedometer, analysis of heart rate, and ST loop in ambulatory electrocardiogram. Clinical Cardiology, 19 (6), 467-472.

Ino-Oka, E., Umeda, S., Kutsuwa, Y., Takahashi, T., Sagawa, K., & Inooka, H. (1998). The effects of an angiotensin-converting inhibitor (enalapril) on patients with mild cardiac failure — evaluating cardiac function based on the relationship between daily walking pace and heart rate. Clinical Cardiology, 21 (12), 893-898.

Inoue, Y. (1996). Longitudinal effects of age on heat-activated sweat gland density and output in healthy active older men. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 74 (1-2), 72-77.

Inoue, Y., Nakao, M., Okudaira, S., Ueda, H., & Araki, T. (1995). Seasonal variation in sweating responses of older and younger men. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 70, 6-12.

Irie, M., Nagata, S., Ikeda, M., & Miyata, M. (1998). Effect of walking during all weekdays, holidays, and at work on mental and physical health in workers. Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi (foreign language), 40 (1), 7-14.

Irimagawa, S., &Imamiya, S. (1993). Industrial hygienic study on nursing activities comparison of energy expenditure between pedometer and holter eletrocardiograph. Kitasato Archives of Experimental Medicine, 65, 99-105.

Irving, J., & Patrick, J. (1982). The use of mechanical pedometers in the measurement of physical activity. In F. D. Scott (Ed.) Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Ambulatory Monitoring, New York: Academic Press, 369-376.

Iwane, M., Arita, M., Tomimoto, S., Satani, O., Matsumoto, M., Miyashita, K., & Nishio, I. (2000). Walking 10,000 steps a day or more reduces blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity in mild essential hypertension. Hypertension Research, 23, 573-580.

Johnson, M., Woodcock, A., & Geddes, D. (1983). Dihydrocodeine for breathlessness in "pink puffers". British Medical Journal, 286 (6366), 675-677.

Kashiwazaki, H., Inaoka, T., Suzuki, T., & Kondo, Y. (1986). Correlations of pedometer readings with energy expenditure in workers during free-living daily activities. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 54 (6), 585-590.

Kemper, H., Saris, W., & Washburn, R. (1996). Measuring Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure, Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.

Kemper, H., Verschuur, R. (1977). Validity and reliability of pedometers in habitual activity research. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 37, 71-82.

Kilanowski, C., Consalvi, A., & Epstein, L. (1999). Validation of an electronic pedometer for measurement of physical activity in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 11, 63-68.

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Koshi, K., Matsuo, S., & Tadokoro, Y. (2000). Pedestrian tracking system using digital portable telephones. Electronics and Communications in Japan, 83 (7), 12-21.

Koshi, K., Matsuo, S., & Tadokoro, Y. (2000). Pedestrian tracking system using digital portable telephones. Electronics and Communications in Japan, 83 (7), 12-21.

Kozlov, I., & Zborovskii, E. (1983). Evaluation of normal motor activity by a pedometer in primary prophylaxis of ischemic heart disease. Kardiologiia (foreign language), 23 (6), 114-115.

Kriska, A. (2000). Ethnic and cultural issues in assessing physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71 (2 Suppl), S47-S53.

Laporte, R., Montoye, H., & Caspersen, C. (1995). Assessment of physical activity in epidemiologic research: problems and prospects. Public Health Reports, 100, 131-146.

Lee, C. (1993). The definition and assessment of physical activity in cardiovascular risk reduction research. Australian Journal of Public Health, 17, 190-194.

Lee, C., Lawler, G., Panemangalore, M., Street, D. (1987). Nutritional status of middle-aged and elderly females in Kentucky in two seasons: part 1. Body weight and related factors. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 6 (3), 209-215.

Leenders, N., Michael-Sherman, W., & Nagarja, H. (2000). Comparisons of four methods of estimating physical activity in adult women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32 (7), 1320-1326.

Leermakers, E., Dunn, A., & Blair, S. (2000). Exercise management of obestity. Obesity, 84, 419-440.

Lindberg, R. (2000). Active living: on the road with the 10,000 Steps program. Journal of American Dietetic Association, 100, 878-879.

Maeda, K., Kawamura, T., Iwatsuka, T., Ohta, T., & Hashimoto, S. (1992). Effect of daily energy intake and amount of walking on body weight reduction and its maintenance. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi [Japanese Journal of Public Health] (foreign language), 39 (6), 319-325.

Maehashi, A., & Taketa, K. (1996). Scores of fatigue complaints in high school students in physical education classes. Acta Medica Okayama, 50 (3), 165-172.

McCaughtry, N., Oliver, K.L., Dillon, S.R., & Martin, J.J. (2008). Teachers' perspectives on the use of pedometers as instructional technology in physical education: A cautionary tale. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 27, 83-99.

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Mizuno, C., Yoshida, T., & Udo, M. (1990). Estimation of energy expenditure during walking and jogging by using an electro-pedometer. Annals of Physiological Anthropology (foreign language), 9 (3), 283-289.

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